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Joaquin Schofstall
Joaquin Schofstall

Gastrointestinal Anatomy And Physiology: The Es...


The anatomy and gastrointestinal physiology of rabbits, guinea pigs, and chinchillas are different from those of other exotic companion mammals. Rabbits, guinea pigs, and chinchillas are all concentrate selectors, hindgut fermenters, and coprophagic. They are designed to intake large quantities of high-fibrous, low-energy-density foods. They use unique colonic separation mechanisms and have open-rooted, constantly growing dentition. Gastrointestinal disease, often secondary to diet or environmental factors, is common in these species.




Gastrointestinal Anatomy and Physiology: The Es...



The upper gastrointestinal tract consists of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, and duodenum.[13]The exact demarcation between the upper and lower tracts is the suspensory muscle of the duodenum. This differentiates the embryonic borders between the foregut and midgut, and is also the division commonly used by clinicians to describe gastrointestinal bleeding as being of either "upper" or "lower" origin. Upon dissection, the duodenum may appear to be a unified organ, but it is divided into four segments based upon function, location, and internal anatomy. The four segments of the duodenum are as follows (starting at the stomach, and moving toward the jejunum): bulb, descending, horizontal, and ascending. The suspensory muscle attaches the superior border of the ascending duodenum to the diaphragm.


The lower gastrointestinal tract includes most of the small intestine and all of the large intestine.[15] In human anatomy, the intestine (bowel, or gut. Greek: éntera) is the segment of the gastrointestinal tract extending from the pyloric sphincter of the stomach to the anus and as in other mammals, consists of two segments: the small intestine and the large intestine. In humans, the small intestine is further subdivided into the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum while the large intestine is subdivided into the cecum, ascending, transverse, descending and sigmoid colon, rectum, and anal canal.[16][17]


The gastrointestinal tract has a form of general histology with some differences that reflect the specialization in functional anatomy.[22] The GI tract can be divided into four concentric layers in the following order:


This chapter discusses what is known of physiologic gender differences of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Women seem to have keener taste, smaller tongue volume, and less tongue strength compared with men. Women tend to have less salivary flow than men do, and their saliva differs in content of bicarbonate and sodium. There are differences between men and women regarding both esophageal function and anatomy. Men appear to have fewer defense mechanisms to prevent against esophageal reflux disease. There are clear differences in gastric acid output (GAO) between men and women. It would seem that women of smaller stature have smaller stomachs and decreased parietal cell mass resulting in decreased gastric acid secretion. However, studies have shown that estrogen may actually play a role in the regulation of acid secretion. There appear to be differences in gastric motility between men and women, although these findings may depend, in part, on the type of testing done, and the lack of standardization in technique. Gender-related differences in enzymes of the small intestine may affect drug metabolism as well as differences in the absorption/handling of certain minerals and ions. Many studies suggested that women have slower gallbladder emptying than men. These differences may in part explain the greater propensity for women to develop gallstones.


N2 - This chapter discusses what is known of physiologic gender differences of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Women seem to have keener taste, smaller tongue volume, and less tongue strength compared with men. Women tend to have less salivary flow than men do, and their saliva differs in content of bicarbonate and sodium. There are differences between men and women regarding both esophageal function and anatomy. Men appear to have fewer defense mechanisms to prevent against esophageal reflux disease. There are clear differences in gastric acid output (GAO) between men and women. It would seem that women of smaller stature have smaller stomachs and decreased parietal cell mass resulting in decreased gastric acid secretion. However, studies have shown that estrogen may actually play a role in the regulation of acid secretion. There appear to be differences in gastric motility between men and women, although these findings may depend, in part, on the type of testing done, and the lack of standardization in technique. Gender-related differences in enzymes of the small intestine may affect drug metabolism as well as differences in the absorption/handling of certain minerals and ions. Many studies suggested that women have slower gallbladder emptying than men. These differences may in part explain the greater propensity for women to develop gallstones.


AB - This chapter discusses what is known of physiologic gender differences of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Women seem to have keener taste, smaller tongue volume, and less tongue strength compared with men. Women tend to have less salivary flow than men do, and their saliva differs in content of bicarbonate and sodium. There are differences between men and women regarding both esophageal function and anatomy. Men appear to have fewer defense mechanisms to prevent against esophageal reflux disease. There are clear differences in gastric acid output (GAO) between men and women. It would seem that women of smaller stature have smaller stomachs and decreased parietal cell mass resulting in decreased gastric acid secretion. However, studies have shown that estrogen may actually play a role in the regulation of acid secretion. There appear to be differences in gastric motility between men and women, although these findings may depend, in part, on the type of testing done, and the lack of standardization in technique. Gender-related differences in enzymes of the small intestine may affect drug metabolism as well as differences in the absorption/handling of certain minerals and ions. Many studies suggested that women have slower gallbladder emptying than men. These differences may in part explain the greater propensity for women to develop gallstones. 041b061a72


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