What is ddd pool v1.2 activation key? - Answers
Intelligent agents can solve tasks in various ways depending on their available set of actions. However, conventional reinforcement learning (RL) assumes a fixed action set. This work asserts that tasks with varying action sets require reasoning of the relations between the available actions. For instance, taking a nail-action in a repair task is meaningful only if a hammer-action is also available. To learn and utilize such action relations, we propose a novel policy architecture consisting of a graph attention network over the available actions. We show that our model makes informed action decisions by correctly attending to other related actions in both value-based and policy-based RL. Consequently, it outperforms non-relational architectures on applications where the action space often varies, such as recommender systems and physical reasoning with tools and skills. Results and code at .
Ddd Pool Activation Code 12
Deep neural networks are used for a wide range of regression problems. However, there exists a significant gap in accuracy between specialized approaches and generic direct regression in which a network is trained by minimizing the squared or absolute error of output labels. Prior work has shown that solving a regression problem with a set of binary classifiers can improve accuracy by utilizing well-studied binary classification algorithms. We introduce binary-encoded labels (BEL), which generalizes the application of binary classification to regression by providing a framework for considering arbitrary multi-bit values when encoding target values. We identify desirable properties of suitable encoding and decoding functions used for the conversion between real-valued and binary-encoded labels based on theoretical and empirical study. These properties highlight a tradeoff between classification error probability and error-correction capabilities of label encodings. BEL can be combined with off-the-shelf task-specific feature extractors and trained end-to-end. We propose a series of sample encoding, decoding, and training loss functions for BEL and demonstrate they result in lower error than direct regression and specialized approaches while being suitable for a diverse set of regression problems, network architectures, and evaluation metrics. BEL achieves state-of-the-art accuracies for several regression benchmarks. Code is available at -aamodt-group/BEL_regression.
Image denoising and artefact removal are complex inverse problems admitting multiple valid solutions. Unsupervised diversity restoration, that is, obtaining a diverse set of possible restorations given a corrupted image, is important for ambiguity removal in many applications such as microscopy where paired data for supervised training are often unobtainable. In real world applications, imaging noise and artefacts are typically hard to model, leading to unsatisfactory performance of existing unsupervised approaches. This work presents an interpretable approach for unsupervised and diverse image restoration. To this end, we introduce a capable architecture called Hierarchical DivNoising (HDN) based on hierarchical Variational Autoencoder. We show that HDN learns an interpretable multi-scale representation of artefacts and we leverage this interpretability to remove imaging artefacts commonly occurring in microscopy data. Our method achieves state-of-the-art results on twelve benchmark image denoising datasets while providing access to a whole distribution of sensibly restored solutions.Additionally, we demonstrate on three real microscopy datasets that HDN removes artefacts without supervision, being the first method capable of doing so while generating multiple plausible restorations all consistent with the given corrupted image.
We present a new framework AMOS that pretrains text encoders with an Adversarial learning curriculum via a Mixture Of Signals from multiple auxiliary generators. Following ELECTRA-style pretraining, the main encoder is trained as a discriminator to detect replaced tokens generated by auxiliary masked language models (MLMs). Different from ELECTRA which trains one MLM as the generator, we jointly train multiple MLMs of different sizes to provide training signals at various levels of difficulty. To push the discriminator to learn better with challenging replaced tokens, we learn mixture weights over the auxiliary MLMs' outputs to maximize the discriminator loss by backpropagating the gradient from the discriminator via Gumbel-Softmax. For better pretraining efficiency, we propose a way to assemble multiple MLMs into one unified auxiliary model. AMOS outperforms ELECTRA and recent state-of-the-art pretrained models by about 1 point on the GLUE benchmark for BERT base-sized models.
Traditional computer vision models are trained to predict a fixed set of predefined categories. Recently, natural language has been shown to be a broader and richer source of supervision that provides finer descriptions to visual concepts than supervised "gold" labels. Previous works, such as CLIP, use InfoNCE loss to train a model to predict the pairing between images and text captions. CLIP, however, is data hungry and requires more than 400M image-text pairs for training. The inefficiency can be \textitpartially attributed to the fact that the image-text pairs are noisy. To address this, we propose OTTER (Optimal TransporT distillation for Efficient zero-shot Recognition), which uses online entropic optimal transport to find a soft image-text match as labels for contrastive learning. Based on pretrained image and text encoders, models trained with OTTER achieve strong performance with only 3M image text pairs. Compared with InfoNCE loss, label smoothing, and knowledge distillation, OTTER consistently outperforms these baselines in zero-shot evaluation on Google Open Images (19,958 classes) and multi-labeled ImageNet 10K (10032 classes) from Tencent ML-Images. Over 42 evaluations on 7 different dataset/architecture settings x 6 metrics, OTTER outperforms (32) or ties (2) all baselines in 34 of them. Our source code is open sourced at
Recently, brain-inspired spiking neuron networks (SNNs) have attracted widespread research interest because of their event-driven and energy-efficient characteristics. It is difficult to efficiently train deep SNNs due to the non-differentiability of its activation function, which disables the typically used gradient descent approaches for traditional artificial neural networks (ANNs). Although the adoption of surrogate gradient (SG) formally allows for the back-propagation of losses, the discrete spiking mechanism actually differentiates the loss landscape of SNNs from that of ANNs, failing the surrogate gradient methods to achieve comparable accuracy as for ANNs. In this paper, we first analyze why the current direct training approach with surrogate gradient results in SNNs with poor generalizability. Then we introduce the temporal efficient training (TET) approach to compensate for the loss of momentum in the gradient descent with SG so that the training process can converge into flatter minima with better generalizability. Meanwhile, we demonstrate that TET improves the temporal scalability of SNN and induces a temporal inheritable training for acceleration. Our method consistently outperforms the SOTA on all reported mainstream datasets, including CIFAR-10/100 and ImageNet. Remarkably on DVS-CIFAR10, we obtained 83% top-1 accuracy, over 10% improvement compared to existing state of the art.
The structural design of functional molecules, also called molecular optimization, is an essential chemical science and engineering task with important applications, such as drug discovery. Deep generative models and combinatorial optimization methods achieve initial success but still struggle with directly modeling discrete chemical structures and often heavily rely on brute-force enumeration. The challenge comes from the discrete and non-differentiable nature of molecule structures. To address this, we propose differentiable scaffolding tree (DST) that utilizes a learned knowledge network to convert discrete chemical structures to locally differentiable ones. DST enables a gradient-based optimization on a chemical graph structure by back-propagating the derivatives from the target properties through a graph neural network (GNN). Our empirical studies show the gradient-based molecular optimizations are both effective and sample efficient (in terms of oracle calling number). Furthermore, the learned graph parameters can also provide an explanation that helps domain experts understand the model output. The code repository (including processed data, trained model, demonstration, molecules with the highest property) is available at
Reward-free, unsupervised discovery of skills is an attractive alternative to the bottleneck of hand-designing rewards in environments where task supervision is scarce or expensive. However, current skill pre-training methods, like many RL techniques, make a fundamental assumption -- stationary environments during training. Traditional methods learn all their skills simultaneously, which makes it difficult for them to both quickly adapt to changes in the environment, and to not forget earlier skills after such adaptation. On the other hand, in an evolving or expanding environment, skill learning must be able to adapt fast to new environment situations while not forgetting previously learned skills. These two conditions make it difficult for classic skill discovery to do well in an evolving environment. In this work, we propose a new framework for skill discovery, where skills are learned one after another in an incremental fashion. This framework allows newly learned skills to adapt to new environment or agent dynamics, while the fixed old skills ensure the agent doesn't forget a learned skill. We demonstrate experimentally that in both evolving and static environments, incremental skills significantly outperform current state-of-the-art skill discovery methods on both skill quality and the ability to solve downstream tasks. Videos for learned skills and code are made public on